The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) of women from all the communities of the country has registered a decrease in the last few years, as per the report of the fifth phase of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5).
TFR refers to the number of children a woman is producing during her reproductive period. It is believed that if this figure falls to 2.1 or less, then after some time the population of the country will stop growing.
According to the Times of India report, the TFR of all communities except Muslims is now less than the current TFR average of 2 in the country. TFR of the Muslim community only is 2.36.
According to the survey, compared to the NFHS-1 of 1992-93, the sharpest decline in the fertility rate among Muslims is 46.5 per cent.
However, in comparison to the previous survey i.e. NFHS-4 in 2015-16, there has been a sharp decline for the second time after the second sharp decline in the TFR of the Muslim community in this survey (2019-21).
In the last survey for Muslims, the figure was 2.62. In this way, a decline of 0.26 has been registered in it. In the case of Buddhists, this figure has come down from 1.74 to 1.39.
At the same time, the total fertility rate of two religious communities, Sikh and Jain, has increased instead of decreasing. The TFR of the Sikh community has now increased from 1.58 to 1.61, while that of the Jain community has increased from 1.2 to 1.6. (Fertility rate Muslims)
According to reports, the TFR of the Hindu community has now come down from 2.13 to 1.94. The total fertility rate of the Christian community has come down from 1.99 to 1.88.
Earlier, the NFHS-5 figures were released by Union Health Minister Mansukh Mandaviya in Vadodara, Gujarat on Friday. This showed that the country’s TFR has come down from 2.7 in the previous survey to 2.
It was also pointed out that now only 5 states in the country have a fertility rate more than 2.1. These include Bihar (2.98), Meghalaya (2.91), Uttar Pradesh (2.35), Jharkhand (2.26) and Manipur (2.17). (Fertility rate Muslims)
NFHS-5; data from associated domains
Between NFHS-4 and NFHS-5, the percentage of the population using clean cooking fuel increased from 44% to 59%. The population using hand washing facilities increased from 60% to 78%. (Fertility rate Muslims)
The prevalence of overweight or obesity has increased in most states/UTs in NFHS-5 as compared to NFHS-4. Nationally, it increases from 21 percent to 24 percent in women and from 19 percent to 23 percent in men.
The number of primary health centers increased from 20,520 to 30,579 during the same period.
NFHS-5; data on women empowerment
The survey measured the extent to which married women generally participate in health care decisions for themselves; Major home purchases. NFHS-5 found that 80 percent of women in Ladakh have higher participation in domestic decision-making than in Nagaland and 99 percent of women in Mizoram. The prevalence of women having a bank or savings account has increased from 53 to 79 percent in the last 4 years.
The flagship programs of the government like Ayushman Bharat and Poshan Abhiyan have led to significant improvement in health indicators in rural and urban India.
Some of the Key Parameters with respect to the year 2013-14 are as follows:
|Name of the Indicators||Year 2013-14 (as on 31st March 2014)||Year 2020-21 (as on 31st March 2021)||%age Growth of 2020-21 w.r.t 2013-14|
|No. of SCs||152326||157819||3.6|
|No. of PHCs||25020||30579||22.2|
|No. of CHCs||5363||5951||11.0|
|No. of SDH||1024||1224||19.5|
|No. of DH||755||764||1.2|
|HW (F)/ANM at SCs & PHCs||217780||235757||8.3|
|Doctor at PHCs||27335||38525||40.9|
|Total Specialist at CHCs||4091||5760||40.8|
|Radiographer at CHCs||2189||2746||25.4|
|Pharmacist at PHCs & CHCs||22689||33857||49.2|
|Lab Tech at PHCs & CHCs||16679||27733||66.3|
|Nursing Staff at PHCs & CHCs||63938||94007||47.0|
Key results from NFHS-5 National Report
- India has made remarkable progress in population control measures in recent times. The total fertility rate (TFR), the average number of children per woman, fell from 2.2 to 2.0 nationally between NFHS-4 and 5. There are only five states in India, which are above the replacement level of fertility. 2.1. They are Bihar (2.98), Meghalaya (2.91), Uttar Pradesh (2.35), Jharkhand (2.26), Manipur (2.17).
- The overall Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) has increased from 54% to 67% in the country. The use of modern methods of contraception has also increased in almost all the States/UTs. The unmet needs of family planning have come down from 13 per cent to 9 per cent. The unmet vacancy requirement, which has been a major issue in India in the past, has come down to less than 10 per cent. (Fertility rate Muslims)
- The proportion of pregnant women who had an ANC visit in the first trimester increased from 59 to 70 percent between NFHS-4 and NFHS-5. Among most states, Nagaland recorded the highest growth of 25 per cent, followed by Madhya Pradesh and Haryana. In contrast, Goa, Sikkim, Punjab and Chhattisgarh saw a marginal decrease in ANC visits in the first quarter. At the national level, 4+ ANCs have seen considerable progress from 51 per cent in 2015-16 to 58 per cent in 2019-21.
- Institutional births in India have increased from 79 per cent to 89 per cent. In rural areas also about 87 percent of births are given in institutions and in urban areas it is 94 percent.
- Institutional births increased maximum at 27 per cent in Arunachal Pradesh, followed by Assam, Bihar, Meghalaya, Chhattisgarh, Nagaland, Manipur, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal with over 10 per cent increase. In the last 5 years, in more than 91 percent of the districts, more than 70 percent of births have taken place in health facilities.
- In NFHS-5, more than three-quarters (77%) of children aged 12–23 months were fully vaccinated, compared to 62 percent in NFHS-4. Full immunization coverage in children ranges from 57 per cent in Nagaland to 95 per cent in DNH and DD. Odisha (91%), Tamil Nadu (89%), and West Bengal (88%) also showed relatively high vaccination coverage.
- The level of stunting among children under 5 years of age in India has decreased marginally from 38 to 36 percent over the past four years. In 2019-21, stunting is more among children in rural areas (37%) than in urban areas (30%). Variation in stunting is lowest in Puducherry (20%) and highest in Meghalaya (47%). (Fertility rate Muslims)
- Significant reductions in stunting were observed in Haryana, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Sikkim (7 percentage points each), Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Manipur (6 percentage points each), and Chandigarh and Bihar (5 percentage points each). . Along with NFHS-4, there has been an increase in the prevalence of overweight or obesity in most states/UTs in NFHS-5.
- Nationally, it increases from 21 percent to 24 percent in women and from 19 percent to 23 percent in men. More than a third of women in Kerala, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Sikkim, Manipur, Delhi, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Punjab, Chandigarh and Lakshadweep (34–46%) are overweight or obese.
- NFHS-5 shows an overall improvement in SDG indicators across all States/UTs. Married women typically participate in three household decisions (about health care for themselves; making major household purchases; visiting their family or relatives) indicating that their participation in decision-making is high, with 80 percent in Ladakh up to 99 percent. in Nagaland and Mizoram. The difference between rural (77%) and urban (81%) is found to be marginal. The prevalence of women having a bank or savings account has increased from 53 to 79 percent in the last 4 years.
- Between NFHS-4 and NFHS-5, use of cleaner cooking fuels (44% to 59%) and improved sanitation facilities (49% to 70%), including hand washing with soap and water (60% to 78%) %) is included. ) has improved significantly. There has been a substantial increase in the proportion of households using improved sanitation facilities, which can be attributed to the Swachh Bharat Mission programme.