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What Is Biogas? Is It Sustainable?

What Is Biogas? Is It Sustainable?

Biogas renewable energy comes from the transformation of organic waste into energy in the form of gas. Along with other established ones such as solar energy and wind energy, biogas seeks to break through by valuing its contribution to the circular economy.

What is Biogas?

Biogas is a fuel gas made from biomass, either by decomposition or by chemical processes. Biogas is a type of renewable gas that is obtained from organic waste from industries such as food, agriculture or livestock. Basically, where there is biodegradable organic matter (that decomposes) it is possible to obtain this biofuel.

In nature, all organic waste is equivalent to nutrients for other living beings. Biogas follows this same principle even in urban environments, where a large amount of biodegradable waste is also generated, such as fruit peels, coffee grounds and other remains that accumulate in the organic waste container.

Using this waste as raw material and others, such as the sludge produced by wastewater treatment plants (EDAR), it is possible to manufacture biogas and give it different uses.

How is Biofuel produced?

Among the phases or processes of Biogas generation we find the following steps:

  • Hydrolysis: It happens due to the rupture of the cell wall of the Biomass, by the action of extracellular enzymes produced by the fermentative bacteria, which convert the polymeric matter into soluble organic compounds. In this way, the result obtained will be sugars, amino acids, fatty acids and alcohols capable of being fermented by acidogenic microorganisms.
  • Acidogenesis: In this stage, the conversion of sugars and amino acids into intermediate organic acid compounds, hydrogen and carbon dioxide occurs. Bacteria with hydrolyzing and acidogenic properties act in this step.
  • Metagenesis: It is the last stage to decompose biomass by anaerobic digestion and generate from CO2, Hydrogen methane gas. Acetic acid is also converted by the action of methanogenic bacteria into Biomethane, useful as Biofuel.

Environmental Benefits of Biogas

  • Emission reduction: The emission of polluting gases is much less than when burning fossil fuels.
  • Gasoline and diesel substitute: Biogas could manage to replace petroleum-derived fuels which, in addition to having a very high price, significantly harm nature. It can also replace LPG, which is cooking gas, also highly polluting.
  • Improve the lives of farmers: Since this fuel is obtained through the decomposition of organic substances, farmers could use the excrement of their animals and the remains of the crops to create it. This would improve their quality of life thanks to the income that it would bring them.
  • Power supply where needed: The production plant can be installed in rural and urban areas. Therefore, electricity and heat can be produced where it is needed. This makes this fuel a very valid option for emerging and developing countries where there are no nuclear infrastructures or conventional plants.
  • Reliable fuel: This fuel is produced from industrial waste or garbage, which would end the problem of where to store the waste. On the other hand, these are totally natural resources that are constantly renewed. An important factor is that this type of energy, unlike other renewable energies, does not depend on weather conditions. Therefore, its creation can occur uninterruptedly 24 hours a day and 7 days a week.
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Environmental improvement: Although this advantage has been exposed throughout the entire article, it does not hurt to dedicate a specific space to it. Biogas will decrease the need to use fossil fuels and will not cause additional carbon dioxide emissions when burned.

Advantages of biogas

  • Reduce emissions of toxic gases into the atmosphere.
  • Replace fossil fuels.
  • Supply cleaner energy.
  • Support farmers’ activities.
  • Cleaner Energy Use.

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