Skip to content
Home » HOME » Dam-building spree in Arunachal Pradesh is taking a toll on its biodiversity

Dam-building spree in Arunachal Pradesh is taking a toll on its biodiversity

arunchal pradesh 160 dam project

Arunachal Pradesh is a northeastern state in India that is home to several major rivers, including the Brahmaputra, Subansiri, and Siang. The state has immense potential for hydropower generation, which has led to a rapid expansion of dam projects in recent years. The Indian government has identified Arunachal Pradesh as a key region for hydropower development, with plans to build several large dams in the state. The construction of these dams is part of a larger effort to address India’s growing energy needs and reduce its dependence on fossil fuels. However, the rapid expansion of dam projects in Arunachal Pradesh has raised concerns about its impact on the environment and local communities.

More than 160 dam projects are planned in Arunachal Pradesh, including a hydroelectric dam.

Environmentalists argue that the construction of dams can cause irreversible damage to the ecosystem, including habitat loss, changes to water flows, and impacts on fish and other wildlife. The critics also argue that the construction of dams can have significant social and cultural impacts, including displacement of local communities and changes to traditional practices. Despite these concerns, the Indian government has continued to push forward with dam projects in Arunachal Pradesh. This highlights the need for a more balanced approach to infrastructure development that takes into account both environmental and social considerations

Impact on biodiversity

The building of dams often results in the flooding of large areas of land. Hence, leading to the loss of forested areas and the displacement of wildlife. The changing flow of the river can also affect the habitat of fish and other aquatic organisms, which can have knock-on effects throughout the food chain. In addition to these direct impacts, the construction of dams can also have indirect effects on the environment. For example, the building of access roads, power transmission lines, and other infrastructure associated with dam projects can lead to habitat fragmentation and increased human activity in previously undisturbed areas.

According to a report in The Third Pole, the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process for hydropower projects in Arunachal Pradesh is often inadequate and does not adequately consider the potential impacts on the environment and biodiversity. It also highlights the importance of long-term monitoring of dam projects to assess their ongoing environmental impacts. This monitoring should include assessments of water quality, changes in river flow, and impacts on fish populations and other aquatic organisms.

Ranganadi Dam no environmental
Ranganadi Dam no environmental flow Arunachal Pradesh | Photo: Flickr

Consequences for Indigenous Communities

The construction of dams in Arunachal Pradesh can have significant consequences for indigenous communities and their way of life, including the Adi, Apatani, Nyishi, Galo, and Mishmi tribes. These communities rely on the region’s rivers and forests for their livelihoods and cultural practices. The displacement of indigenous communities can have significant social and cultural impacts, including the loss of traditional knowledge and practices and the disruption of community structures and social networks. In addition, the loss of access to natural resources can have long-term impacts on the economic and social well-being of these communities. In addition, the building of access roads, power transmission lines, and other infrastructure associated with dam projects can lead to increased human activity and cultural changes in previously isolated areas.

Balancing Development and Conservation

Balancing development and conservation in Arunachal Pradesh is a complex challenge. On the one hand, the construction of dams is seen as an important driver of economic growth and energy security for the region and the country as a whole. On the other hand, the environmental and social impacts of dam-building must be carefully considered to avoid irreversible damage to the region’s ecosystems. Furthermore, the displacement of indigenous communities.

The dam-building projects in Arunachal Pradesh could result in the loss of more than 2,000 hectares of forest and significant declines in the populations of several endangered species, according to a study published in the journal Biological Conservation. The construction of large dams can increase the risk of earthquakes and landslides as Arunachal Pradesh is located in a seismically active zone.

According to S.M. Sarmah, the chairman of the Arunachal Pradesh State Electricity Regulatory Commission, “Hydropower is the key to unlocking the economic potential of Arunachal Pradesh.” However, critics argue that the economic benefits of dam-building are not worth the social and environmental costs. Dr R.K. Pachauri, the former chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC), noted, “There is no development if it is not sustainable.”

To address this challenge, it is important to involve all stakeholders in the decision-making process, including local communities, environmentalists, and government officials. The adoption of a participatory approach to infrastructure development can help to ensure that the voices of all stakeholders are heard and that decisions are made in a transparent and accountable manner.

Ranganadai Dam Arunachal Pradesh
Ranganadai Dam Arunachal Pradesh | Photo: Flickr

Need for Sustainable and responsible infrastructure development

There is an urgent need for sustainable and responsible infrastructure development practices that minimize the environmental and social impacts of infrastructure projects. This includes careful site selection, using clean energy technologies, minimizing land use changes, and adopting adaptive management practices that allow for ongoing monitoring and evaluation of project impacts.

Sustainable infrastructure development also requires taking into account the needs and perspectives of all stakeholders, including local communities, environmentalists, and government officials. This can be achieved through participatory decision-making processes that ensure transparency, accountability, and respect for human rights.


The dam-building spree in Arunachal Pradesh has raised a range of concerns about its impact on indigenous communities and the environment. The displacement of indigenous communities, loss of habitat and biodiversity, and seismic risks are just a few of the challenges posed by these infrastructure projects. It is essential to balance economic development with the preservation of indigenous communities’ cultural and ecological heritage.

A sustainable and responsible approach to infrastructure development is urgently needed, one that considers the long-term impacts on the environment and the livelihoods of indigenous communities. Only then can we ensure that we leave a healthier planet for the generations to come.

Keep reading

Follow Ground Report for Climate Change and Under-Reported issues in India. Connect with us on FacebookTwitterKoo AppInstagramWhatsapp and YouTube. Write us on


  • I am a versatile writer with a passion for science and creative expression. With expertise in research and writing, as well as a thriving social media presence and experience managing other writers, I am committed to continuing to learn and grow in my craft.