Ground Report | New Delhi: What is a quantum computer; In the times to come, quantum computing can effectively change the world and our lives. Realizing the importance of this new technology, the Government of India made a provision of 8 la crore rupees in the budget for the development of this technology last year.
After this, in the last week of August this year, the Government of India launched the Qsim quantum simulator, through which scientists and entrepreneurs were able to carry out research in this field.
Besides India, other countries are also investing in this technology to give a new direction to the future. The US government enacted the National Quantum Initiative Act in 2018 and made a provision of $ 1.2 billion for it.
The Communist Party of China Quantum Communications in the thirteenth five-year plan in 2016 strategically in the key industries involved. The UK formulated a national strategy for this in 2013. In 2016 Canada announced an investment of C $ 50 million in this technology. Apart from these, companies like Germany, France, South Korea, Russia, Japan and Google, Amazon, Microsoft are also investing in this technology.
Understand quantum computing, before that, let’s understand what is quantum. Their discussion began at the beginning of the 20th century. This was the time when Albert Einstein gave the ‘Theory of Relativity’ to the world.
Until now, physics was based on classical theory, which was related to the explanation of events in reality. According to this, the existence of things in the universe, their change, everything is certain.
And this uncertainty lies in the behavior of the molecule of the smallest particle of matter, the atom. Quantum mechanics is the study of the behavior of these small molecules, which is impossible to understand within the scope of the classical theory of physics.
What is a quantum computer
Quantum computers are machines that use the properties of quantum physics to store data and perform calculations. This can be extremely advantageous for certain tasks where they could far outperform even our best supercomputers.
Classical computers, including smartphones and laptops, encode information into binary “bits” that can be 0 or 1. In a quantum computer, the basic unit of memory is a quantum bit or a qubit.
Qubits are made using physical systems, such as the spin of an electron or the orientation of a photon. These systems can be in many different arrangements at the same time, a property known as a quantum superposition. Qubits can also be inextricably linked by a phenomenon called quantum entanglement. The result is that a series of qubits can represent different things simultaneously.
For example, eight bits are enough for a classical computer to represent any number between 0 and 255. But eight qubits are enough for a quantum computer to represent all numbers between 0 and 255 at the same time. A few hundred entangled qubits would be enough to represent more numbers than atoms in the universe.